Deal Names ad

super monopolies graphic
home buttonsummary buttonbackground buttonopinion buttoncomments buttonobjections button
petition buttonbrand domains buttonicann claims buttonmy objection buttonfuture buttonwashington post button
news domains buttonstore domains buttonbeauty domains buttontire domains buttonmisc closed domains button 1misc closed domains button 2
icann forum button 1icann forum button 2icann forum button 3icann forum button 4icann forum button 5icann forum button 6


Around 1,400 new domain extensions are being evaluated in 2013 for staged release over the next couple of years. Millions of new domains under these extensions are set to join the existing ranks of domains like .com, and .tv.

The numbers on this page are rounded because:

• It makes it simpler to analyse strategic trends;

• Some applications for new extensions are being withdrawn or modified on a seemingly monthly basis;

• Many, possibly hundreds, of applications are likely to eventually be rejected for a multitude of reasons by ICANN — the regulator of the domain name system.

Mini Glossary

See more on the home page.

ICANN — Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN operates under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Commerce).

Generic Domain — A general style of domain name extension, usually a dictionary word such as .web, .hotel, .cloud and .movie.

Closed Generic Domain — A generic name extension where every single domain with that extension will be owned by a single corporation. This controversial possibility (and the reason behind SuperMonopolies) is discussed at right.

TLD — Top Level Domain.

gTLD — Generic Top Level Domain.

ccTLD — Country Code TLD.

String — A loose term referring to a single extension plus all the domains under that extension. For example, the ".game string", which also includes names like and

IDN — Internationalized Domain Name, for example a word written in non-English script.

The Future?

The chart below is analysed in detail on the Future page. Don't worry about the size of the pie or the segments — it's just to illustrate possible trends.

If closed generic domains are approved, it is possible that a significant fraction of the internet could be privately owned by corporations operating what have been described as "walled gardens." There are very serious negative consequences arising from the possible implementation of these proposed private internets.

domain category pie charts

The New Domains

If this graphic is at all accurate, then in five or ten years, the internet will be enormously bigger. The new domains look set to revolutionize the web.

The Brand Domains

A large number of .brand domains will have launched. (The .brands will be closed strings — only the owner will be able to register domains under that extension. That makes sense, these are trademark names like .bmw and .fedex.) The brand domains happen to include most of the world's 500 largest corporations, such as General Electric and Google, so their impact will be significant.

The City Domains

A small number of .city strings will join the web. These will operate in a similar way to existing ccTLDs such as .jp and .ca. (That also makes sense, many large cities are bigger than many small countries.) The city authorities will control who owns and uses domains in their jurisdiction. Many of the world's major cities such as London and NYC have applied for their own extension.

The Generic Domains

The generic domain category will undergo a massive expansion with the addition of hundreds of potentially popular extensions like .shop, .cloud, .app and .home. These are predicted to stimulate great interest and innovation in the next stage of the internet — by providing wide choice and promoting competition... if their implementation is fair, that is...

...But alarmingly, ICANN has not made it compulsory for applicants for the new generic domains to make their registries open.

A number of large corporations have applied to own in exclusivity entire domain strings on common dictionary words, words that rightfully belong to all mankind. They are seeking to commandeer and exploit the words we speak for their own private benefit.

Important words like shop, game, security, cloud, book, forex, weather and home. If successful, you will be expressly prohibited from registering a name like JoeShmoe.home.

A move that has already been condemned by one commentator as: "Colonization of Internet".

Excerpts from 100 objections are published here on the six ICANN Forum pages.

The Petition Against Closed gTLDs

There is also a page about the petition organized against the proposed domain monopolies. You can also sign it directly via the link below:

petition graphic





Summary — Closed Generic Domains Controversy

Domain name choices for websites are about to dramatically expand. More than a thousand new domain extensions are being evaluated and will be launched soon. The new domains are coming. Domains like, and will join existing traditional name options like and

However, among the applications are many for "closed registries" — which means that none of the domains carrying that extension will be offered for sale to the general public. Instead, large corporations are planning to operate tens of thousands of websites under those domains in complete exclusivity. This will obviously be to their obvious commercial advantage.

Domain super monopolies to shut out competitors.

Imagine for a moment a single company owning every .store domain like the following samples, plus hundreds of thousands more, covering every product in existence:

store domain names graphic

Well that is precisely what Amazon, already an internet retail giant, is planning to do.

(The .store string is discussed on the .STORE string page - Ed.)


As an example, The Weather Channel has applied to operate a closed registry on the proposed .weather string:

"...Over the next few years, the number of registrations is likely to increase to about 100,000 domain names as TWC (The Weather Channel) develops and implements new services...

"As a restricted gTLD, registration will only be open to internal users (affiliate entities) at this stage and no unaffiliated third parties will be able to register domain names under .weather domain space."

See more info on the Misc strings 1 page.

The implications of single corporations owning every domain in some of the new extensions are profound in the extreme. The potential for commercial damage to competitors is great.

dot weather graphicCompetitors will be locked out — even government regulators who control those industries will be blocked. (In the .weather example, even national weather organizations will be prohibited from owning .weather domains.) This situation has led to the risk of powerful super monopolies being created to the detriment of other entities and companies in the same industries. Serious questions are being raised about the extent to which this is seriously detrimental to the public interest.

The Existing Domains

There are currently two types of domain names on the internet, as illustrated in the top pie chart at left:

• country code domains (like for Great Britain and .cn for China). These tend to be used mainly within their individual countries;

• generic domains (like .com, .net and .tv*). These are often used for more globally focused audiences. Some domain extensions like .tv have a more targeted focus than their broad counterparts.

There are more than 250 country domains, one for every country.

There are currently only about 20 generic domains — which has led to a shortage of good names for new business start-ups and individuals.

SPECIAL NOTE — For the sake of this discussion (because it is so dominant) the .com domain string is given a category of its own in the pie chart at left — though technically it is just another generic domain.

So in the 2013 pie chart at left we have three categories...

(* NOTE — Technically, .TV is the country code extension for Tuvalu, but is mostly used as a generic.)

The New Domains

1900 applications for more than 1400 new domain extensions were received by the deadline in 2012.

These are scheduled to begin rolling out in late 2013 and the process will probably take a couple of years. How the internet may look in six or seven years time is represented in the lower pie chart at left.

chart of new gtld categories

NOTE — Numbers on this page are approximate.

New Categories

Two completely new categories of domains are being added which you can see in the lower pie chart:

• The dot brand domains — many corporations have applied to launch their own brands as domain extensions such as .ibm and .apple. Hence we will see new domain names like and These domains are based on trademarks and will be wholly owned by those corporations, and members of the public will not be able to register names under those extensions, such as;

• The dot city domains — various large cities have applied to have their own .city domain extensions, like .london and .tokyo. Soon, we will see domains like and on the web. These will be operated by the city authorities and be subject to restrictions. Typically, you will need to be a resident or operate a registered business in that city to be eligible.

One completely new sub-category is possibly being added:

• Closed generic domains.

These appear to be the same as normal generic domains, but with one all-important and critical point of difference...

...Every domain under that string will be owned by a single owner. For example, Amazon has applied to own the .store string as a closed registry. That means Amazon will own every .store domain and website in the world. Sites like,,,,, and Plus the dozen in the graphic on the top of this page like, plus hundreds of thousands more. The list is unlimited.

Yes, it's hard to believe that this may be being permitted to happen.

So in the 2020 pie chart at left we now have five categories, plus one new sub-category — closed generics.

Many Objections Made in the Public Interest

book domain graphicAs you might expect, objections to the disturbing advent of closed generic gTLDs are passionate, and 100 excerpts from the ICANN closed generics forum are published on the ICANN forum pages. This is a threat to many industries. As an example, here are just three excerpts from high profile objections to the application to operate the .book string as a private registry:

"Amazon's clear goal is to dominate the bookselling and publishing markets. Their drive to further consolidate these markets will be greatly aided by their control of the .book, .read and .author TLDs. By having Amazon control these TLDs, creativity will be limited and content diversity threatened."

Barnes & Noble, Inc

"In the case of a closed generic TLD like .books, the exclusivity granted to the winning applicant would de facto strengthen the position of the biggest bidder to have sole use of the gTLD in the book industry, would be anti-competitive and extremely detrimental to the book industry as a whole."

European and International Booksellers Federation

"We strongly object to ICANN's plans to sell the exclusive top-level domain rights for generic book-industry terms, such as .book, .author, and .read. Placing such generic domains in private hands is plainly anticompetitive, allowing already dominant, well-capitalized companies to expand and entrench their market power. The potential for abuse seems limitless."

Authors Guild



blank spacer

au time logo — An overview of the gigantic new top level domain expansion program. — A hypothetical analysis of the new top level domain names — coming in 2013-14.



Privacy Policy

----- ----- ----- ----- -----


clock photo

Alarm Media



© 2012-13 David Tyrer  All rights reserved

Website by Click as a Flash

Terms and Conditions

TERMS, CONDITIONS, DISCLAIMER AND COPYRIGHT NOTICE. No part of this website may be reproduced or transmitted in any form whatsoever without the express written permission of the copyright holder. The right of David Tyrer to be identified as the author of this work is asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. The Super Monopolies site ( site shall not be re-transmitted, repurposed, printed, lent or otherwise circulated in any printed or electronic form without the written permission of the copyright holder, and shall not under any circumstances have these conditions waived for any recipient. The artistic integrity of the work contained herein may not be altered or repurposed in any way, shape or form without the express written permission of the copyright holder. This site contains links to other sites outside our control or ownership. No responsibility is taken for any action or advice you may take from these sites or from any of the information presented by these pages. Super Monopolies bears no relationship with some third party advertisers displayed on this site. Display of those advertisements does not constitute endorsement, recommendation or association with them. Any references to any trademarks or service marks are not our responsibility and not under our control. Information on this site is presented on an "as is" basis in good faith only and as such Click as a Flash makes no warranties regarding the accuracy, adequacy or completeness of any of the material provided. We cannot be held liable for any errors, inaccuracies or omissions in the material presented on this site or its links, nor for the consequences of acting on any information that may be presented, which may have changed or be out of date. We cannot be held liable for any financial or any other damages that may occur from accessing, relying upon or using any hypotheses, opinions, investment advice, commercial advice, ideas or concepts presented here. No information presented here should be construed as legal advice. Content of this site is well-intended opinion and hypothetical speculation only and should not be construed as legal or expert advice. No warranty is given regarding the accuracy of this site and any information used is at your sole risk. No liability whatsoever is accepted with the exception of any that may be required under Australian law. Any brand names mentioned on this site are trademarks or registered marks of their respective owners. Any use of these marks on these pages is purely speculative and hypothetical and does not represent actual use of those marks by those trademark owners. No claim is intended that any of the companies mentioned on this site are intending to create monopolies, this site is merely presenting speculative information to show that competition to such companies may be challenged in the light of the power of the internet. Terms and conditions are subject to change without notice. Copyright in some images resides with istockphoto® and these photos are used under licence. All data, images, text, videos and audio are presented for viewing purposes only. No part of the data, images, text, photos, art, audio, logos, movies or trademarks or any other content may be repurposed, copied, saved, resold or reproduced in any way without written permission. Click as a Flash's registered Australian Business Number is ABN 62 188 088 529. © David Tyrer 2012-13 All Rights Reserved.


button to loungecast

button to click as a flash